The B.B.S. meeting in Slovakia was an opportunity to visit an area little known to most British bryologists. In the event just six members attended the meeting from the U.K.: John Blackburn, Tom Blockeel, Dick Gutteridge, Peter Martin, Ron Porley and Harold Whitehouse. Joan Gutteridge unfortunately had to pull out at the last moment, leaving her husband to cope with five bryologists. An overnight stop gave us the opportunity to look briefly around the beautiful city of Prague before flying on to Poprad next morning. Dr Rudolph Šoltés, of the Research Station of the Tatra National Park, was our local organiser and did an excellent job. A very informative field excursion booklet had been prepared for us, and each were presented with Dr Šoltés’ book Tatra flowers. We were very pleased to be joined later by Prof. Jiri Váña, Thomas Homm, Blanka Buryová and Ivan Novotný.
The Tatra Mountains, a 27km long granite massif covering some 260 sq km, forms the northernmost range of the Carpathian Mountains. It is one of the most compact high mountain ranges in the world. The maximum altitude is 2655m, with many peaks over 2500m. There are frequent outcrops of limestones, schists and base-rich Mylonite. The massif is protected by several National Parks which comprise spruce-pine-larch forest, dwarf pine belt, alpine grassland, peatland systems and chionophilous vegetation. However, some areas are popular for winter sports which can all too easily damage arctic-alpine communities, and the Winter Olympics are due to be held here in 2002. Although much of the Tatra Mountains is situated in Slovakia, the northern part of the High Tatra is in Poland. The Tatras are also at the watershed of Europe. The eastern part of the Slovakian Tatras drains south into the River Poprad, which then turns north to join the River Dunajec, the longest river canyon in Central Europe. This then meets the River Vistula in Poland and so reaches the Baltic. The western Tatras, however, drain south into the Danube, on eventually to the Black Sea.
Dr Šoltés had prepared a wide-ranging and varied programme for us, with our own transport in a sturdy Russian-made minibus. Although some of the excursions involved long drives, this did allow us to see a good cross-section of habitats, and we were fortunate to have access along otherwise closed roads to the heads of some of the valleys.
Day 1: 14 August. Monková dolina – Zadné Med’odoly Valley
As we gathered outside our hotel in early morning sunshine our party was joined by a young Czech bryologist, Blanka Buryová (a student of Prof. Váña) and Thomas Homm from Germany. The excursion started in a glacial valley at 930m, proceeding up through spruce forest. This was our first opportunity to look at the bryophytes in the Tatra Mountains and so progress was inevitably slow. It also turned out to be one of our longest days. Under the shade of the forest we encountered plants such as Tritomaria quinquedentata, Rhizomnium magnifolium, Eurhynchium angustirete and Rhytidiadelphus subpinnatus. Rotten wood was a frequent feature, supporting Tritomaria exsecta, Cephalozia lunulifolia, Scapania umbrosa, Blepharostoma trichophyllum, Riccardia palmata and Herzogiella seligeri. Two especially nice finds were Anastrophyllum michauxii and Lophozia ascendens, the last species on the European Red List. Vascular plants were certainly not ignored, and Dr Šoltés pointed out the beautiful Tatra endemic Aconitum firmum. A stream added diversity, with Dichodontium pellucidum, Hygrohypnum luridum and H. ochraceum on wet rocks. As we ascended, the forest opened up and exposed rocks outcropped. The calcareous nature of the rock was evident with Scapania aequiloba, Distichium capillaceum, Gymnostomum aeruginosum, Didymodon ferrugineus, Platydictya jungermannioides, Orthothecium rufescens, O. intricatum, Campylium halleri, and Tortella tortuosa with sporophytes. On damp rock ledges bordering the stream Preissia quadrata, Pedinophyllum interruptum and Hymenostylium recurvirostrum were characteristic. Hypnum lindbergii was seen on top of a limestone boulder, a curious habitat, and Distichium inclinatum was found by Harold on thin peaty soil overlying limestone. On drier, more exposed boulders Paraleucobryum enerve, Pseudoleskea incurvata, Ptychodium plicatum, Pseudoleskeella catenulata, P. nervosa and Pterigynandrum filiforme were noted. North-facing crags, above the Pinus mugo zone, yielded other interesting plants including Sauteria alpina, and Tom collected Tritomaria scitula. Time was seemingly against us and we had to press on if we were to complete the route which would take us into the next valley. Boulder scree near to the saddle at 1930m diverted our attention again, finding Anastrepta orcadensis, Bazzania tricrenata, Timmia norvegica and T. austriaca, and growing directly on siliceous rock, Andreaea rupestris, Dicranoweisia crispula, Racomitrium sudeticum and Grimmia incurva fo. longifolia. As we reached the saddle we paused to take in the splendid rugged mountain landscape of the Belianske Tatras, and from then on it was a rapid descent to rendezvous with the awaiting bus. A Hygrohypnum in the stream here has proved difficult to name: it has a strong single leaf nerve but is probably a stout form of H. luridum rather than H. polare.
Day 2: 15 August. Temnosmrecinová Valley
A number of other people joined us today, mostly from Bratislava, to look for vascular plants. Situated between the High Tatras and the West Tatras, the Temnosmrecinová Valley winds its way through spruce forest with relict stands of Pinus cembra. We soon found Racomitrium microcarpon on rocks by the forest path, and Ron turned up Lophozia ascendens on rotting wood.
A number of small flushes occur in the valley floor and support a variety of Sphagnum species that illustrate the complex nature of the groundwater influence, including S. magellanicum, S. papillosum, S. teres, S. squarrosum, S. palustre var. centrale (S. palustre var. palustre being very rare in this part of Europe), and a fine stand of S. riparium was seen under spruce. Marsupella sprucei was collected on a stone in a runnel, and amongst the other bryophytes of these flushes were Scapania uliginosa, Philonotis seriata, Drepanocladus exannulatus and on a peaty bank Calypogeia azurea. Bryum pallescens was collected by Blanka. A small mire at 1500m was more obviously base-rich with Sphagnum subsecundum, S. russowii and Calliergon sarmentosum. As we ascended, the ground became more open and rocky with runnels and flushes dispersed around Pinus mugo. On wet skeletal soils and on rocks were many interesting plants, particularly Lophozia wenzelii and Tritomaria polita, both spotted by Tom. Other species included Jungermannia obovata, J. sphaerocarpa, Marsupella emarginata, M. sphacelata, Blindia acuta, and a fertile colony of Moerckia blyttii was much admired on wet soil in the shelter of crags. Our destination was to be two montane lakes, and the surrounding boulder strewn landscape proved to be very interesting. Several Grimmia cushions were collected, and these turned out to be G. sessitana, G. incurva fo. brevifolia and G. anomala. The latter plant, collected by Tom, had distinctive gemmae on the leaf apices. Other plants of note include Lophozia sudetica, Gymnomitrion concinnatum, Diplophyllum taxifolium, Dicranoweisia crispula, Kiaeria falcata, K. starkei, Paraleucobryum longifolium, Racomitrium sudeticum and R. lanuginosum (surprisingly rare). By now we were shrouded in billowing mist and ghostly bryologists hovered about. A splinter group reached the second, further lake and were rewarded by finding Oncophorus virens, Paraleucobryum enerve, Tortula norvegica, Pseudoleskea radicosa and Hygrohypnum duriusculum. Peter collected Lescuraea saxicola. Meanwhile, Dr Šoltés advised that the weather was not looking too good and that we should retreat. He was of course right, and soon the mist was augmented by heavy cold rain, and then hail the size of peas. Bryology was suspended as we concentrated on survival and negotiating the by now slippery boulders. One could tell that Dick’s mind was more on a warming Carpathian brandy awaiting him back at the hotel.
Day 3: 16 August. Juráñova Valley
We were very pleased to be joined by Professor Váña, and set out on a cool cloudy morning, but had at least dried out from yesterday’s soaking. After a long detour around the southern boundary of the National Park we arrived at a rich fen near Oravice, one of many mire communities within this valley showing boreal phytogeographical elements. Almost immediately our spirits soared as we found the handsome Paludella squarrosa and abundant Tomentypnum nitens. Our excitement was further fuelled by finding the relict boreal Meesia triquetra amongst the rather dense sedge. Other associates included Sphagnum warnstorfii, S. teres, Fissidens adianthoides, Plagiomnium elatum, P. ellipticum, Aulacomnium palustre, Climacium dendroides, Campylium stellatum, Drepanocladus vernicosus, D. cossonii and a small amount of Moerckia hibernica. Philonotis calcarea and P. fontana were both present, and Blanka, who is something of an expert on this genus, explained the subtle vegetative differences between them. Much discussion ensued when a robust Hypnum-type plant was found by Ron, and eventually the name of Hypnum pratense was unanimously agreed upon, a plant not known from this site and a rarity in Slovakia. After some lunch we checked out a small isolated area of relict raised bog near Zuberec. Unfortunately succession had taken its toll; the mire was drying out and few species of interest, apart from Sphagnum russowii, remained. However an abundance of the continental Ledum palustre was good to see, and the willow gentian, Gentiana asclepiadea, was in fine form. Of considerably more interest though was an arable field, reclaimed no doubt from the former raised bog adjacent. Harold was in his element, and it turned out that, amongst the Bryum he collected, there was Bryum demaretianum in only its second European locality. Other notable finds were Atrichum tenellum, Ditrichum pusillum, Pohlia lescuriana and Bryum tenuisetum. Harold subsequently observed that the arable fields of Slovakia bore some remarkable similarities in their bryophytes to those of Quebec, where he has also found Bryum demaretianum. On the way back to our hotel we made a brief stop to look at one or two roadside trees south of Zuberec and turned up Pylaisia polyantha and Orthotrichum pumilum (on Populus tremula).
Day 4: 17 August. Vajskovská Valley
Today’s excursion started with another long drive to reach the Vajskovská Valley situated in the Low Tatras. Our primary objective was to re-find the European Red List plant Ochyraea tatrensis, discovered here by Prof. Váña in 1985. To reach the locality at 1560m we had to proceed fairly rapidly through spruce forest and on through the Pinus mugo zone, giving little time to look at bryophytes. It took much of the morning, in hot conditions, finally to come across the mountain stream. Prof. Váña soon located the exact spot and showed Ochyraea tatrensis to an enthralled audience. Under the lens the opaque multistratose leaves are clearly discernible and we pondered its affinities to other disjunct genera in the world. It was seen in three separate places in the stream, but Prof. Váña was convinced that it had declined since his last visit. However, he also told us that he had discovered the plant in another stream in a nearby valley; this gives some optimism for its survival. Equally interesting was that its main associate was Hygrohypnum smithii, with sporophytes. Many other species were present on the wet rocks including Jungermannia pumila, J. obovata, Scapania undulata, Dicranella palustris and Rhynchostegium riparioides. The flushed ground in the vicinity of the stream supported Scapania uliginosa, Sphagnum teres, Polytrichum alpinum, Rhizomnium magnifolium, Philonotis seriata and Calliergon sarmentosum. On rocks we found Gymnomitrion concinnatum, Paraleucobryum longifolium, Racomitrium sudeticum, R. aciculare, R. aquaticum, Grimmia muehlenbeckii (G. trichophylla var. tenuis) and Pterigynandrum filiforme. The long descent to rendezvous with the bus left little time for bryology although Hypnum pallescens was seen on the bark of Sorbus aucuparia. On the way back to the hotel our thirsts were slaked as we stopped off at a natural spring where some of us filled our bottles with effervescent mountain water!
Day 5: 18 August. Javorový Z’lab, Cervené vrchy
Before breakfast a small but keen party visited some cultivated ground towards the village of Stará Lesná to look for arable plants, led by Harold. The ground was very dry though and not very productive, but we did find Dicranella staphylina, Pohlia melanodon and Bryum klinggraeffii. Following breakfast we were joined by Prof. Váña, who suggested we might try a different locality to the one given in our excursion guide. This proved to be an excellent move. The site was relatively close by, in the High Tatras. Soon after we set off, Harold and Tom collected Plagiomnium medium growing on rocks close to a stream. As we gained altitude our list rapidly grew with such plants as Tortula norvegica, Tortella fragilis, Mnium stellare, M. spinosum, Ptychodium plicatum and Brachythecium geheebii, a species on the European Red List. On limestone cliffs at and near a cave we found Seligeria trifaria, Gymnostomum aeruginosum, Cirriphyllum cirrosum, and Orthothecium rufescens. On the floor of the cave was abundant Marchantia polymorpha ssp. montivagans, and in a rock crevice Bryum stirtonii, found by Tom. Desmatodon latifolius, Timmia austriaca and T. norvegica were seen nearby on rocky ground.
After lunch, we headed for higher ground at about 1700m and eventually came upon a sheltered rocky gully with fine views of the High Tatras. The sheer variety of bryophytes that confronted us here was incredible. The list is a long one but includes Peltolepis quadrata, Sauteria alpina, Asterella lindenbergiana, Leiocolea alpestris, L. heterocolpos, Barbilophozia lycopodioides, Jungermannia confertissima, Anthelia juratzkana, Distichium capillaceum, Oncophorus virens, Encalypta alpina, Tayloria froelichiana with capsules, Mnium thomsonii, M. ambiguum, Meesia uliginosa, Timmia norvegica, Heterocladium dimorphum, Hypnum recurvatum and Hylocomium pyrenaicum. There was also a small Scapania of section Curtae, probably S. helvetica, but unfortunately sterile. We were reluctant to leave such a rich area but time was getting short. On the way down, as we passed through spruce forest, we saw some fine stands of Rhytidiadelphus subpinnatus. This was, we all agreed later, probably the most bryologically interesting day we had in the Tatras.
Day 6: 19 August. ‘Lazy’ Meadows near Pribylina.
After two days on the high ground, we had a short easy day in the field on day 6, and the name of our destination seemed curiously appropriate. The site at ‘Lazy’ Meadows is a wetland on gently sloping ground where calcareous springs emerge over granite bedrock, creating areas of flushed ground and fen. The habitat was therefore rather different from the mire at Oravice which we visited on day 3, and it was not quite so rich. However, there was a greater quantity of Paludella squarrosa, which grew in some very fine patches, and Hypnum pratense was again present. Other mire species included Sphagnum teres, S. warnstorfii, S. angustifolium, Plagiomnium elatum, Drepanocladus cossonii, Tomentypnum nitens and Calliergon giganteum.
We finished our exploration soon after lunch, and had a free afternoon. Most members decided to visit a nearby Museum, but Harold and Tom spent some time in the adjacent arable fields. These were very dry for the most part, but Harold found a damp corner and eventually turned up Riccia sorocarpa, Ditrichum pusillum, D. cylindricum and Dicranella staphylina, along with some immature Anthoceros and Fossombronia species. (The Anthoceros later matured in the laboratory and turned out to be A. agrestis.) On poplar trees by the road there were small amounts of Orthotrichum pumilum and Pylaisia polyantha.
Day 7: 20 August. Dunajec Canyon, Pieniny National Park.
The Pieniny National Park, to the east of the High Tatras, is an area of wooded calcareous hills in the Carpathian ‘klippen’ zone. The Dunajec river forms a fine canyon separating the greater part of the park in Poland from the smaller part in Slovakia. The river is popular with rafters, and as this was a Sunday a constant (but one-way) procession of rafts passed us by as we walked the river banks.
Our visit began, however, when we were conducted around the Red Monastery (Cervený Klástor) at the western entrance to the Canyon. This former Carthusian Monastery is now being redeveloped as a Museum. From here the riverside path leads north-eastwards through Spruce and Beech woods on craggy limestone. The bryophyte flora has much in common with that of our British limestone hills, but with a more continental flavour. Anomodon attenuatus was common on the rocks, and Cirriphyllum tommasinii was eventually located on some shaded crags. A straight-leaved Hypnum growing over the limestone rocks was at first thought to be Callicladium haldanianum but has now been identified as H. cupressiforme var. subjulaceum. It is a distinctive plant, with sharply pointed branches and excavated, brown leaf auricles. Other species noted on the shaded limestone included Apometzgeria pubescens, Pedinophyllum interruptum, Lophocolea minor, Scapania calcicola, S. aequiloba, Cololejeunea calcarea, Didymodon ferrugineus, Seligeria donniana, Plagiobryum zieri, Mnium thomsonii, Plagiopus oederianus, Pseudoleskeella catenulata, Taxiphyllum wisgrillii and Homomallium incurvatum. Eurhynchium angustirete was on the woodland floor, and Jamesoniella autumnalis, Jungermannia leiantha, Nowellia curvifolia and Herzogiella seligeri were noted on rotting wood. The epiphytes also had a continental flavour, and included Pseudoleskeella nervosa (on lime), Platygyrium repens (on sycamore) and Amblystegium subtile (on beech).
The path along the canyon was easy but the walk was fairly long and we had to be hurried along at times. Along the latter part of the route there were some steep bare cliffs which support a rare chrysanthemum Dendranthema zawadskii. The bryophytes here included abundant Pseudoleskeella catenulata, along with Thuidium abietinum, Hypnum vaucheri and Rhytidium rugosum. A robust Homalothecium on the rocks was thought to be H. philippeanum, but appears in fact to be H. lutescens, in a form similar to that which occurs on the Pennine limestones in Britain.
We left the river just south of the Polish border, near the village of Lesnica. The path passed some sunny crags noted for various Grimmias, but we had little time to explore them, and in any case rain clouds were gathering. However a hurried collection was later found to include a few stems of Grimmia tergestina. We arrived back at our bus just in time to avoid a heavy rain shower. The intriguing mystery of the one-way rafts was also solved, when we saw them being loaded onto lorries to be driven back to the head of the canyon!
Day 8: 21 August. Suchá Belá Gorge, Slovak Paradise.
This day saw our second visit to the Low Tatra Mountains, in the wild wooded hills known as the Slovak Paradise (Slovenský Raj) south of Poprad. We drove to Podlesok and walked up the Suchá Belá gorge, a deep ravine negotiated only with the help of bridges and ladders (not for the faint of heart!). Although the base of the ravine is at an altitude of only 550m, the cool conditions allow the occurrence of some alpine species.
There was much wet limestone along the bottom of the gorge and it was not long before we were able to see Barbula crocea near the stream. We soon assembled a long list of species characteristic of wet shaded limestone, including Pedinophyllum interruptum, Scapania aequiloba, Lejeunea cavifolia, Cololejeunea calcarea, Seligeria donniana, S. acutifolia, Campylium halleri, Orthothecium rufescens and O. intricatum. A particularly interesting find was Hypnum sauteri, a tiny plant with strongly falcate leaves, growing in thin mats closely appressed to the wet rock. Among the many other species observed on wet ledges and shaded crags were Moerckia hibernica, Barbilophozia barbata, Trichocolea tomentella, Didymodon ferrugineus, Plagiobryum zieri, Plagiopus oederianus, Amblyodon dealbatus, Timmia bavarica, T. austriaca, Pseudoleskeella catenulata and Thuidium recognitum.
There were many logs and tree stumps in the bottom of the gorge and the wet conditions favoured a rich growth of bryophytes. In addition to the widespread Ptilidium pulcherrimum, Riccardia palmata and Herzogiella seligeri, we saw both Jungermannia leiantha and Jamesoniella autumnalis with perianths, and also Tritomaria exsecta, Cephalozia catenulata, C. leucantha, Nowellia curvifolia and Calypogeia suecica. For many of us, however, the highlight of the day was the discovery of Buxbaumia viridis in two places, at first a single capsule on a decayed log and later at least six more capsules on a single stump. Epiphytes on the living trees included Leucodon sciuroides, Neckera pumila, Anomodon attenuatus and Platygyrium repens.
The steep gorge sides made it difficult to examine the woodland ground flora in any detail, but Plagiomnium medium, Eurhynchium angustirete and Ptilium crista-castrensis were noted. In the upper part of the gorge there were pockets of acid ground on peaty humus, with increasing quantities of Mylia taylorii and small patches of Bazzania trilobata, Sphagnum quinquefarium and Bartramia halleriana. Also collected on ledges near the head of the gorge were Brachythecium glareosum and Eurhynchium speciosum. However our exploration of this area was curtailed by gathering storm clouds, and Dr Šoltés led us on a hasty retreat down a woodland path to the car park. Not all of us escaped the deluge!
Day 9: 22 August. Smutná Dolina.
This day, in the West Tatras, was to be our last on the high ground. Smutná Dolina is a cirque valley-head branching from the Rohácska Dolina valley. It has a fine series of north- to north-west-facing crags, partly formed of base-rich rock (Mylonite). The valley bottom is granite. Unfortunately its position to the north-west of the Banikov/Ostrý Rohác ridge necessitated a long drive round the West Tatras to the head of the Rohácska Dolina. Fortunately the road leads high into the valley and it was only a short walk into the bottom of Smutná Dolina.
The area below the saddle at the head of the valley was known to have a rich flora, including the interesting relict liverwort Bucegia romanica (Marchantiaceae), a species confined in Europe to the Carpathian chain. However as the saddle was still over a kilometre distant we decided that our time would be better spent on the nearer crags of Ostrý Rohác towering above the base of the valley. This decision was amply justified, as the crags (at 1700-1800m) proved to have a very exciting flora. It was particularly frustrating, therefore, that our exploration was hampered by a prolonged spell of heavy rain and a period of dense mist. Those of us who reached the high crags were duly rewarded with some fine patches of Bucegia romanica growing on thin soil on rock ledges and in crevices. The long list of other species noted on the main crags included Peltolepis quadrata c.fr., Sauteria alpina, Barbilophozia hatcheri, Eremonotus myriocarpus, Tritomaria polita, Jungermannia subelliptica, Scapania cuspiduligera, Anthelia juratzkana, Cephalozia ambigua, Bazzania tricrenata, Ditrichum zonatum, Saelania glaucescens, Encalypta alpina, E. ciliata, Geheebia gigantea, Grimmia funalis, Bryum elegans, Meesia uliginosa, Timmia austriaca, Amphidium lapponicum, Myurella julacea, Lescuraea saxicola, Pseudoleskea patens, Ptychodium plicatum, Cratoneuron curvicaule, Campylium halleri, Brachythecium glaciale, Cirriphyllum cirrosum, Isopterygiopsis muelleriana, Orthothecium rufescens, Hypnum callichroum, H. bambergeri and Hylocomium pyrenaicum. Some of these were detected only in small quantity in material collected for examination, and undoubtedly we missed many other species because of the poor conditions.
The granite valley bottom with boulders and Pinus mugo thickets, and the adjacent scree slopes, produced some additional species collected en route. These included Lophozia sudetica, Mylia taylorii, Gymnomitrion concinnatum, Diplophyllum taxifolium, Bazzania trilobata (under the Pinus mugo), B. tricrenata, Polytrichum sexangulare, Kiaeria starkei, K. blyttii, Grimmia sessitana and G. incurva.
This was a wonderful place, and had the conditions been better it would probably have outdone Javorovy Z’lab as the most memorable venue of the meeting.
Day 10: 23 August. Belianske Lúky Meadows.
Our final day began with a visit to the newly created botanical gardens at the Research Station in Tatranská Lomnica, entirely stocked with local native plants.
From there we moved to the Belianske Lúky meadows near Tatranská Kotlina, which form an extensive area of wetlands irrigated by underground calcareous water draining from the Belianske Tatry mountains. Unfortunately, with the cessation of grazing, we found them to be largely overgrown with tall herbs and encroaching scrub, and there were very few open areas of fen. It was not surprising that we failed to find many of the species which we had seen at the two previous wetland sites. Plagiomnium elatum, Campylium elodes, Drepanocladus cossonii, Tomentypnum nitens and Calliergon giganteum were among those noted.
We finished our visit by lunchtime, and this gave Harold and others a further opportunity to explore arable fields. They collected Riccia glauca, Ditrichum cylindricum, Dicranella staphylina, Bryum klinggraeffii and B. violaceum. Orthotrichum speciosum and O. striatum were collected on nearby trees.
This was the end of serious bryology for the day – and the meeting – and we spent the afternoon visiting the nearby Belianska Jaskyña caves. Later we were treated to an excellent al fresco meal in the forest near Tatranská Lomnica – an excellent goulash of wild boar cooked in large cauldrons, and accompanied by rather more liquid refreshment than most of us could manage! We expressed our gratitude to Dr Šoltés, and also to the National Park authorities who had co-operated with our visit and helped to make it such a success. There was some lively discussion about conservation of the flora, and Ron could not resist stating his strong views about the need for positive management of the wetlands, which otherwise would soon be lost.
All of us who participated in the meeting saw new species, and no doubt each of us left with our different impressions of the flora. We were able to see some 30 species which are unknown (or extinct) in the British Isles. Striking for British bryologists were the plentiful occurrence of Leskeaceae, and the fine array of montane Marchantiales. It was particularly pleasing to have the opportunity to see taxa such as Bucegia which have a disjunct and fragmented range in the northern hemisphere. We were also able to make a significant contribution to the knowledge of the local flora, with localities for several species new to, or very rare in, Slovakia. We are very grateful to Dr Šoltés for his hard work and efficiency in organising the meeting.
T.L. Blockeel & R.D. Porley